Diagram of a flower and flower parts

Diagram of a flower and flower parts



parts of flower
Parts of flower

Flowers are colorful and attractive parts of flowering plants. But it’s not only for show or smell for flowering plants or angiosperms flower is the most vital organ for sexual reproduction in plants. 



Contents


1  Definition of flower 


2  Types of flower


3  Parts of flower or structure of the flower 


4  Structure of a flower 


5  Pollination


6   Fertilization





Let us discuss the diagram of a flower, various parts of a flower with diagram and their function but first start with the definition. 

Definition of flower

The flower is the reproductive unit in the angiosperms. It is meant for sexual reproduction. A typical flower has four different kinds of whorls arranged successively on the swollen end of the stalk or pedicel, called thalamus or receptacle.

(source- NCERT Book)

Types of flower

There are few types of flowers. 

  1. Complete and incomplete flower- Flowers having all four parts (calyx, corolla, stamen, carpal) are called complete flowers. If any flower lack any parts among these are called incomplete flower. 

  2. Perfect (bisexual) and imperfect (unisexual) flower- If a flower contains both male and female reproductive organs then it’s called a perfect flower or bisexual flower. If a flower contains only either male or female reproductive organ then the flower is called an imperfect or unisexual flower.

  3. Regular and irregular flowers-if a flower shows symmetry in shape and size then it is called a regular flower and if a flower shows different shapes and sizes of petals or sepals then it is called an irregular flower. 



Parts of flower or structure of the flower

There are mainly 4 parts of a  flower. Calyx, Corolla, stamen and carpal. We will discuss them in the structure of a flower. 


Simple Diagram of parts of flower
Simple Diagram of parts of flower


Structure of flower Diagram
Structure of flower Diagram



Structure of a flower

  1. Peduncle - It is the stack in which the flower is attached. 


  1. Receptacle/ Thalamus- it is the swollen end of the Peduncle and base for the arrangement of four main parts of a flower. 


  1. Calyx- Calyx is a leaf-like outermost layer of the flower. It is green in colour and provides protection to flowers in the bud stage and are present below petals. Units of the calyx are called as sepals. If sepals are united together then they are called gamosepalous and if they are separate then called polysepalous. 


  1. Corolla- Corolla is the second layer of the flower. It is constructed with bright-colored petals. The main purpose of petals are to attract insects with bright colour, nectar and fragrance for pollination.  Like calyx corolla are also can be gamopetalous and polypetalous. 


Calyx and corolla are part of the Vegetative parts of Flower.


  1. Stamen- Stamen is the male part of flower or maile reproductive organ of stamen which contains pollen grains. It also called as Androecium. There are two parts of a stamen two parts Anther and  Filament.


I. Anther- Anther is the pollen-producing organ. The structure of anther is quite simple.  If we talk about the anther structure, Each anther has two lobes.  Each lobe has two chambers and these chambers are called pollen sacks. Pollen grains are produced in these pollen sacks. 

 

II.  Filament - it is a slander stalk that supports the anther. The purpose of the filament is to make anther amicable to pollinators. 


Diagram of stamen
Diagram of stamen


Diagram of Anther
Diagram of Anther

Diagram of the male reproductive system of flower


  1. Carpal- Carpal is the female sex organ of a flower. It is also called Gynoecium.it consists of the pistil. If there are one pistil of flower then it is called monocarpellary and if it has many flower pistils then it is called multicarpellary. Carpal has three parts stigma, style and ovary. 


I. Stigma-  Stigma is the sticky, receptive tip of the pistil. The main purpose of stigma is to catch pollen. 


II. Style- Style is the tube-shaped connection between stigma and ovary. The main purpose of style is to carry the pollen from stigma to ovule. 


III. Ovary- Ovary is the swollen basal part. Each ovary contains one or more

ovules attached to the placenta. Each chamber of Ovary may contain of one or more ovules.


As we talk about the structure of an ovule it is multicellular and oval in shape. A mature ovule has two parts stack or funicle and body. Funicle attaches the ovule body with the placenta. The junction of the funicle and ovule body is called as hilum. Sometimes Funicle gets extends up to the base of the ovule and forms a ridge that is called raphe.

It is also called an embryo sac. A mature structure of ovule or embryo sac has a group of three cells at each. They situated on either side of nucleus. These cells have a thin wall. The three cells towards the micropylar are called the egg-apparatus. The central cell of them is the egg cell or ovum. It forms the female gamete. The other two cells are called the synergids. The egg cell after fertilization produces the embryo.




Simple diagram of Carpal

Simple diagram of Carpal

 

Detailed Diagram of Carpal
Detailed Diagram of Carpal 


Diagram of Ovule
Diagram of Ovule


Diagram of the female reproductive system of flower




Hibiscus is an example of a complete, regular,  perfect flower. Let’s see the .

diagram of parts of flower of hibiscus
Diagram of parts of flower hibiscus



Pollination 

Pollination is the process of transferring pollen from anther the male reproductive unit to the female reproductive organ stigma. Pollination must happen between the plants of the same species so that the fusion of gametes and ovule can happen and fertilization takes place.   

Types of pollination

Pollination is the main method of reproduction. There are mainly two types of pollination. Self Pollination and Cross-pollination. 

Self-pollination

When pollen from anther falls directly into the stigma of the same flower. It is a simple and fast process as it includes a single flower. It also reduces the chance of genetic variation as the gametes and egg contain the same DNA and RNA. 

Cross-pollination 

When pollen from anther transfer to the stigma of another flower from the same species with the help of wind, inspections or other pollinators take place then it is called cross-pollination. It increases the chance of genetic variation. 

According to the types of pollinators, cross-pollination is divided into few types. 



Pollination Medium

Pollination type

  By air

  Anemophilous


  By water

  Hydrophilous


  By insects

  Entomophilous


  By birds

Ornithophilous


  By animals

  Zoophilous


  By snails

Malacophilous


  By bats

Chiropteriphilous


 By Artifical agents

Anthropophily




diagram of pollination
Diagram of pollination

Diagram of Self Pollination
Diagram of Self Pollination

Diagram of cross Pollination
Diagram of cross Pollination



Fertilization 


Fertilization in plants is the process of fusion of male gametes pollen and female gamete ovum to form a zygote. This zygote later transforms into fruits and seeds.  This pro occurs after pollination and germination.


Double Fertilization- Double fertilization in plants happens especially in angiosperms. In angiosperms two male gametes enter the embryo sack while one fertilizes the Egg to form zygote and other fusses with the polar nucleus to form an endosperm. That’s why fertilization of angiosperm is called double fertilization.


Fertilization Process - after pollen grains stick to the stigma of the carpal. The pollen tube cell forms a pollen tube through a style and generative cell of pollen through this pollen tube transport to the embryo sack. During this journey, the generative cell divides into two sperms. synergids present in the embryo sac secrets a chemical to guide the pollen tube. Among these two two sperm cells, one fertilizes the egg cell and forms a diploid zygote.  The other sperm fuses with the two polar nuclei to form a triploid cell which with time develops the endosperm.


Diagram of fertilization in plants
Diagram of fertilization in plants


Double fertilization diagram
Double fertilization diagram

 

Here we covered information and diagrams of flowers, floral parts, pollination and fertilization. Let us know how you find our post by dropping us a mail. If you think this article is informative and helpful then share it with your friend and family and give them a chance to get benefited. For more articles like this and diagrams of others stay tuned with us and read our other articles. 


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Diagram of Team.